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Great Britain: Paper Correspondence Despatch relating to the Southern of Italy




Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty.





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1. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson April 6, 18611
2. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson April 7, ----2
3. Consul Bonham to Lord J. RussellApril 6, ----2
4. Consul Bonham to Lord J. RussellApril 8, ----3
5. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson April 12, ----3
6. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson April 13, ----4
7. Consul Bonham to Lord J. RussellApril 18, ----4
8. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. HudsonApril 20,----5
9. Consul Bonham to Lord J. RussellApril 25, ----5
10. Consul Bonham to Lord J. Russell

One Inclosure

April 27, ----6
11. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. HudsonApril 27, ----7
12. Consul Bonham to Lord J. RussellMay4, ----8
13. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson

One Inclosure

May5, ----8
14. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. HudsonMay13, ----13
15. Consul Bonham to Lord J. RussellMay10, ----13
16. Consul Bonham to Lord J. RussellMay15, ----13
17. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson May15, ----14
18. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson

One Inclosure.

May 21, ---- 15
19. Consul Bonham to Sir J. Hudson

One Inclosure.

May22, ----17
20. Sir J. Hudson to Lord J. Russell

One Inclosure

May26, ----17
21. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson

One Inclosure

May23, ----19
22. Consul Bonham to Lord J. RussellMay31----23
23. Consul Bonham to Lord J. RussellJune3, ----24
24.. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson June2, ----24
25. Consul Bonham to Lord J. RussellJune8, ----24
26. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. HudsonJune12, ----25
27. Sir J. Hudson to Lord J. Russell

Three Inclosures

June18, ----27
28. Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson June20, ----28
29. Consul Bonham to Lord J. RussellJune28, ----29

Papers respecting the Affairs of Southern Italy.

No. 1.
Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson.—(Received at the Foreign Office, April 13.)
Sir, Naples, April 6, 1861.

THE latest news from the Abruzzi proves the little progress that has been made, since the fall of Gaeta, towards the pacification of the country.

On the 29th ultimo at Castiglione Messer Marino, a small town of 8,000 inhabitants, the peasants rose against the proprietors, killed the Captain of the National Guard, the Syndic and seven of the leading men, carrying out the watchword of the Abruzzian peasant’s politics, “Abbasso il Galantuomo! - Similar excesses took place on the 3rd instant at Isernia, as soon as the two companies in garrison there were withdrawn on the supposition that no further danger was to be apprehended. The troops at Venasso and Teano had to be called in to put down the disturbance, and yesterday a detachment of the National Guard was sent to garrison the place. Nowhere in these districts does any Government exist beyond that imposed by a present military force; the moment that is withdrawn, the life of every Liberal is in danger.

From the other provinces the complaint of want of Government still continues; brigands infest the Calabrias, and everywhere the public peace is at the mercy of any one who chooses to disturb it, whether he be Bourbonist, Republican, or only actuated by personal feelings. Want of energy and honesty on the part of the rulers is at the bottom of all this disorder. The force at their disposal, it is true, is very small; there are but 600 or 700 Carabinieri for the whole of the Neapolitan provinces: but where energy is displayed it is always successful. As an instance, Count Bardesono was received at Foggia by hostile demonstrations, got up by Stocco the ex-Governor, threatening his life with cries of “Abbasso - he used the small force he had with him of military and carabineers to arrest the rioters, and in three days the town was perfectly quiet, the dispossessed Governor convinced of the hopelessness of any attempt at intimidation, and all peaceable citizens rallied round a man upon whom they found they could depend. It is for want of a few more such Governors that the Neapolitan provinces are fast settling into a state of chronic anarchy.

At Naples itself the state of public feeling is even less satisfactory than it was nearly two months ago. Then Gaeta had fallen, the Bourbonists were out of heart, and it was the general expectation that the country would speedily be pacified. Now the insecurity and disorganisation of the country is as great as ever; from day to day the confidence or the Bourbonists increases; Murat has put forward his claims, founded on the impracticability of unity, as proved by the events of the last six months. The Ultra press is again raising the cry for  autonomy as the chances of Rome appear less favourable; and in the mean time no party exists of thorough-going supporters of the Sardinian policy, and no confidence is felt in the Government of Turin, which replaces, and appoints to an additional and more important office, that member of the late Administration who, whether rightly or wrongly, had always come in for the greatest share of unpopularity. It remains to be seen whether M. Spaventa recent measures, on the organisation of a new and more respectable body of police, and the other the distribution, as yet only decreed, of 40,000 additional muskets to the National Guard, will have the effect of changing the current of public opinion.

The nomination of the Councillors of Lieutenancy to the new offices of Secretary-General had been expected, and caused little surprise; for the present, as no instructions have been received as to the precise effect of the change, their functions remain the same; people have given up hoping much from any set of Governors, and these have at least the advantage of some short experience.

The 2nd battalion of the National Guard is about to be mobilised, and will probably be sent to the North of Italy.

The prices of all the necessaries of life show no signs of falling; the advances on the prices of other years are in no case less than 60 per cent., and in some much more.

Funds for public Works are still wanting, and the town of Naples has not

yet succeeded in making its loan.

The second elections appear to excite no interest. No lists have been published by any Committees; the impression is that the returns will be favourable to Government.

I have, &c.


No. 2.
Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson. (Received al the April 13.)

Sir, Naples, April 7, 1861.

A BOURBONIST plot has been discovered by means of a letter from Rome which fell into the hands of Government. Either yesterday or to-day simultaneeus risings were to have taken place in Naples and the environs.

About fifty persons have been arrested, and amongst them the Duca de Cajanello and a Bishop. Some slight disturbances occurred yesterday in the outskirts of Naples, but nothing serious, as the whole of the National Guard were under arms, and strong patrols traversed the city in all directions.

The plot was organized from Rome, and it was doubtless for the purpose of paying the mob that the large quantities of copper money which were seized by Government on the 27th ultimo had been sent to the Bourbonist agents at Naples.

I have &c.


No. 3.
Consul Bonham lo Lord J. Russell.—(Received April 15.)

My Lord, Naples, April 6, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship, that silice my despatch of the 30th ultimo, no disturbances of any importance have occurred to interrupt the tranquillity of this city. It is stated that reactionary attempts have been made in the provinces, especially in the Abruzzi, and that the roads in the interior are very insecure. It is difficult to learn the exact truth: I cannot but think these reports are spread mainly for the purpose of exciting alarm and discontent; and if, as is probable, they are to a certain extent true, they are much exaggerated. The Vice-Consul at Cotrone in Calabria writes that there is still brigandage in that neighbourhood, and adds, “Such has been in all times the ruin of these districts. - On the other hand, I may state that the master of an English vessel wrecked near Brindisi arrived here two days ago with two of his crew, having travelled by vetturino from that place, a journey of seven long ways, and they met with no interruption or difficulty whatever, neither have I heard any instance of the mails having been stopped.

Provisions throughout the country are undoubtedly dear; the prospects of the crops are favourable.

I have, &c.


No. 4.
Consul Bonham lo Lord J. Russell.—(Received April 15.)
My Lord, Naples, April 8, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that a plot for a reactionary outbreak of a very grave nature was discovered and baffled by the energy of the Government on the 6th instant. A great number of arrests have been made, including the Dukes of Cajanello, Monte Mileto, and other persons of rank and position, and some priests: by means of domiciliary visits, considerable stores of ammunition and muskets and much compromising correspondence has been discovered. The plot appears to have had very extensive ramifications throughout the country, and simultaneous risings in different parts were to have taken place on Easter and the following day. On several points outbreaks have actually taken place, attended by bloodshed, but the Government having been forewarned by the correspondence they had seized, and the principal promoters of the conspiracy having been seized in Naples, it is probable these will be suppressed without much difficulty. Very alarming rumours are in circulation, as must be expected in view of the absolute silence and mystery maintained by the Government as to the real facts of the case.

I have, &c.


No. 5.
Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson.—(Received at the Foreign Office, April 22.)

Sir, Naples, April 12, 1861.

THE excitement produced amongst the Neapolitans by the discovery of the reactionary plot of the 6th instant has given rise to many reports, exaggerating the preparation of arms and ammunition, and the number of those implicated.

The facts are as follows:—For some time past the Government had been aware that an extensive reactionary movement was in preparation. The disbanded Bourbonist soldiers, confident in their numbers, did not attempt to conceal their intentions; the correspondence of Monsignor Trotta with Bosco and other adherents of King Francis at Rome had been intercepted by the police; a letter had fallen into their hands from King Francis to the Duke de Cajanello of a compromising nature, though couched in general terms; and an agent from Rome had been tracked to the house of the Duke, who was to put himself at the head of the movement. Meetings were being held at the houses of some of the reactionary nobility, and plans were being formed for a general rising. Before, however, they were matured, it became known to the police that enrolments were made at the house of a priest. A descent was accordingly made, and the confession of a woman led to the arrest of the conspirators. In different places arms and powder have been discovered, and the police report even an Orsini shell.

The Duke de Cajanello, the Marquis de Monte Mileto, Canetto, an old Bourbonist General, Monsignor Trotta, and some other priests, have been arrested, and will be brought to trial. The evidence is supposed to be sufficient to ensure their condemnation, but Government does not seem inclined to invoke the rigour of the law.

At Naples the effect of this plot has been to bring out more strongly the determined opposition of the middle classes to the return of King Francis, and the thought of the danger they were in of a repetition of the scenes of 1849 has only embittered their feelings against the Bourbon dynasty. The behaviour of the National Guard, and the support they have given to the cause of order, has been beyond praise.

The excitement is now, subsiding, and Naples perfectly quid.

In the provinces some disturbances have taken place, the disbanded Bourbonists being every way ready to the hands of the priests; and risings in the Basilicata, a province as large as Tuscany, which has hitherto remained quiet without military or gendarmerie, have rendered it necessary to send troops into that province to restore order.

The elections of last Sunday have generally resulted in “ballottagie, - but Government is under no apprehensions as to the success of Moderate candidates.

The immediate construction of a large terminus station in Naples for the line of the Abruzzi by M. Talabot has just been sanctioned. It is now said that the labourers will not be forthcoming; if so, it will be the proof that the real popular grievance is not want of work, but of alms.

I have, &c.
No. 6.
Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson.—(Received at the Office, April 24.)
Sir, Naples, April 13, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to inclose, from the official journal of the 12th instant, a circular addressed by the Director-General of the War Department to Governors of Provinces and Military Commandants,calling upon them, in consequence of the disorder created by the disbanded Bourbonist soldiers to give immediate effect to the dispositions of Article 2 of the Royal Decree of December 20, 1860, which while granting an unlimited leave to the soldiers of the classes previous to 1857, expressly provided that, in case of any disorderly conduct on their part, they should be immediately recalled to Service, under pain of being considered as deserters.

This order is the necessary consequence of the prominent part taken by the disbanded soldiers in the late disturbances.

I have &c


No. 7.
Consul Bonham to Lord J. Russell.—( April 24.)
My Lord, Naples, April 18, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that the accounts sent to me from the Vice-Consulates of Taranto and Catanzaro represent those districts as in a constantly unsettled state, and such is said lo be the case throughout the provinces generally. This city continues tranquil. A great number of arrests have been made of parties alleged to have been implicated in the conspiracy which was discovered and frustrated on the 6th instant, and I am assured that indictments have been drawn up against a number of them, including the Duke Cajanello, and that they will shortly be brought to trial: a proceeding of this kind is greatly to be desired, as showing that the old System of unlimited imprisonment without trial for political offences is to be abandoned.

The Government appears to attribute much of the unsettled state of the provinces to the number of disbanded soldiers of the former Neapolitan army, who are ready tools in the hands of the priesthood, or of others who may seek to promote disturbance. A circular was addressed, on the 8th instant, to the Governors of provinces, and to the Military Commandants, by Count Revel, Director-General of the War Department, containing severe orders in respect to these parties. I inclose herewith translation of the main parts of that circular; if the orders there given are carried into execution it will no doubt relieve the provinces of a great number of troublesome characters. These orders apply to levies of conscripts prior to the year 1857; all subsequent to that date are already enrolled in the regular army.

I have &C.


No. 8.
Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson.—(Received at the Foreign, April 30.)
Sir, Naples, April 20, 1861.

THE Provinces are still in a state of disturbance. The Reactionists and brigands were beaten at Vico, Avellino, and Atrifaldi, but only to muster in greater force in the Province of Basilicata, where they occupied the neighbourhood of Venosa, Rio Negro (?), Melfi, and Basile. From the latter place they have been dislodged bv a detachment of soldiers, and numerous prisoners were made, and shot.

News has just arrived that Melfi has been occupied without any resistance, and 50 prisoners made, by 3 companies of the Line, 1 battalion of National Guards, and 100 Cavalry, so that the insurrection may now be said to be at an end. The continued presence of the military is, however, quite indispensable.

In the Abruzzi, near Aquila, Antonio Taranto, a notorious brigand chief,  has been taken prisoner, and sent for trial to Avezzano.

In Calabria there are still disturbances, but the brigands have been beaten back, and pursued into the country.

At Cosenza a demonstration was made against the Governor Vercillo and his Secretary, Matera, both most obnoxious to the people. Their immediate fight appeased the populace, and the Syndic had little difficulty in maintaining order. Plotino has been appointed Governor, and is on his way, with troops.

These movements in Calabria and Basilicata, both which provinces received Garibaldi with open arms, are of course, in a great measure, to be attributed to the presence, in large numbers, of disbanded Bourbonists, but partly, also, to a Communist spirit among the peasantrv connected with the “terre demaniali, - and their claims, founded on a Decree of Garibaldi’s.

Commissioners have been appointed to examine into the question, and to attempt to compromise the rival claims of peasants and proprietors, but as yet nothing has been done, as the proposal met with the greatest opposition, and drew down on the Governor Farini more abuse than almost any other public act.

The process against the Duke of Cajanello and his accomplices will begin in a few days. It will not be thought necessary to proceed against all the sub-ordinates, so that probably not more than fifteen persons will be brought to trial.

Signor Spaventa has published a Decree, signed by His Royal Highness, for the reorganization of the National Guard on the footing of the old Sardinian laws of 1848 and 1859, as modified by the Decree of December 1860 to adapt it to the Neapolitan Provinces; and another Decree for the consolidation of the two formerly separate offices of the Police and the Interior.:

I have &c.


No. 9.
Consul Bonham to Lord J. Russell.—( May 2.)

Sir, (Extract.) Naples, April 25, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that the accounts of the state of the country in the vicinity of Melfi are very unsatisfactory. It is stated that armed bands of old Bourbon troops, amounting altogether to not less than from 800 to 1,000 men, have possession of some strong positions in that neighbourhood; that they have repulsed an attack made upon them by Sardinian troops, and proclaimed Francis II.

Great reserve is maintained by the authorities in speaking of this outbreak, and it is made light of, but certainly it bas not yet been put down.

A deputation from those districts carne to Naples, a few days ago, to implore assistance, declaring that, unless troops were sent, they would be compelled to join the insurgents; and no doubt troops have been sent.

Naples itself is tolerably tranquil. There was, last night, a demonstration in favour of Garibaldi; the troops and police happily did not interfere, and, after parading the streets for a time, shouting “Viva Garibaldi, - the crowd quietly dispersed. But there is great and increasing discontent. Officers of the old regime, both civil and military, who have entered the Service, and are employed by the present Government, complain greatly, and probably with truth, of the overbearing conduct of their Piedmontese comrades.

No. 10.
Consul Bonham to Lord J. Russell.—(Received May 3.)
My Lord, Naples, April 27, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that a disturbance occurred in this city yesterday, which at one time threatened very serious consequences, but happily it ended without collision or bloodshed. The apparent cause was as follows:—

An order had appeared in the official journal of Thursday night (25th instant), signed by Signor Spaventa, Secretary-General of the Ministry of the Interior and Police, directing that members of the National Guard should not appear in uniform, except when on duty. For many reasons a regulation of this kind had become necessary—as had been the case with the Garibaldian red shirt, so, latterly, the kepi of the National Guard had been adopted by many people who had no right to it, and to whom that dress gave a certain character and immunity. However, Signor Spaventa being unpopular, the order was ill received, and occasioned great anger amongst a portion of the National Guard; about 150 of these, headed by a captain named Rizzo, rushed into the Department of the Interior and Police yesterday morning, and subsequently broke into and partially sacked Signor Spaventa’s house; the Minister himself had a narrow escape. The rioters being afterwards joined by many more Nationals, all in uniform, to show their disregard of the order, and escorted by a large mob of lazzaroni and others. paraded the streets, and especially thronged the Toledo-street and vicinity of the Ministerial offices during great part of the day; others went about in cabs with the bust of Garibaldi, shouting his name, and endeavouring to add to the excitement. The sliops were closed, and, for a time, considerable alarm existed in the city. Large bodies of regular troops were stationed in the different squares, and bivouacked there until a late hour of the night; these troops behaved with great forbearance, endeavouring to disperse the mob without violence, in which finally they appear to have succeeded.

In the evening, a proclamation, of which I inclose a translation, was issued by Prince Carignano, and some arrests were made. To-day the city has resumed its usual appearance of tranquillity, but I am afraid the difficulty is not yet over.

I have, &c.


Inclosure in No. 10.
(Translation. )

To the Officers, sub-Officers, and Soldiers of the National Guard of Naples.

SOME miserable men, wearing your glorious uniform, which they dishonour, and making common cause with the Bourbonists, have committed to-day, at the Ministry of the Interior and Police, acts unwortby of any civilized people.

Seizing for a pretext some regulations recently published for the reordering of the National Guard, regulations universally observed throughout the rest of ltaly, they have not hesitated to present themselves armed and threatening, wholly regardless of the voice and authority of their respected General, to protest against the application of the law.

Now the laws should be observed here as in the rest of Italy, and you ought to be the first to cause them to be respected.

I have sworn, first among the Italians, to the Statute which governs us, and obedience to the King.

I carne here determined to govern with the laws and with liberty; but I depended upon your assistance to accomplish that difficult task.

Do not allow that the seditious voices of a few among you shall give an ungrateful answer to the unanimous vote by which the Italian Parliament has just pronounced you well deserving of the country.

Do not permit that under this pretext shall bc concealed the Bourbonist conspirator and the malefactor, and do not compromise with insane demonstrations, which I should be forced to repress, the holy cause of Italy.


No. 11.
Mr. Saurin to Sir J.  Hudson.—(Received at the Foreign Office, May 3.)
Sir,  Naples, April 27, 1861.

THE events of the last few days have been a proof of the little respect in which the law and its officers are held by the Neapolitans. As soon as the news arrived of Cialdini’s letter to Garibaldi (a letter condemned by all parties alike) the opportunity was seized for a demonstration, and the streets were thronged on the nights of the 24th and 25th with the usual mob, carrying torches, and shouting “Viva Garibaldi! - “Morte a Cialdini! - “Morte a Cavour!’’ and other cries. Houses were illuminated, in order to save their Windows. No disturbance, however, took place, as patrols both of the military and the National Guard were out in force, and occupied the Toledo the whole day.

There was, however, a general feeling that something was impending, and that a day this week was to compensate by success the failure of the Bourbonist plot of the 6th instant. Yesterday  morning, the 26tli, the reconciliation of Cialdini and Garibaldi had removed the pretext for rioting: a fresh one had to be sought for, and was found in a regulation lately published by M. Spaventa, forbidding the National Guard to appear in uniform when not on dutv. This order had been rendered necessary by the use made of that dress as a cloak for intrigues. About 11 a.m. a deputation of some thirty National Guards, headed by two officers, waited on Spaventa, and required him to cancel his order. On his refusal one drew his sword, and their violence and tbreats were such that the Minister had to escape as best he could out of his own cabinet, in fear of his life, and to take refuge in the Palace. The rioters then left the Ministry, without any attempt being made to arrest them, though there was a strong military guard at the gate.

Later in the day the mob, composed principally of National Guards, went to Spaventa’s private house, broke into and thoroughly sacked it, with cries of “Morte a Spaventa! - and would undoubtedly have killed him had he been found. His neighbour, Commendatore Spinelli, happening to drive up as the mob left the house, was at first taken for him, and as such had a narrow escape of being stabbed. The rioters then proceeded down Toledo to attack the Police Office, but there they were met by the military, and after some difficulty, and not without the word being given to prepare to charge, were dispersed. This happened between 5 and 6 p.m., and the rest of the evening passed off with cairn, though the proclamations of His Royal Highness the Prince de Carignano, of which I inclose copy,* were torn down by the populace as soon as they were posted up on the walls.

The rioters carried with them a bust of Garibaldi, and were originally accompanied by a band of Garibaldians. These, however, had listened to the advice of the calmer amongst them, and returned before the military were called out. The lower classes, it is said, took little part in the demonstration of yesterday.

This attack on a Minister is a fit pendant to one on Signor Manna, the Director of the Customs, who was threatened last Sunday in his own office with a revolver by some of his subordinates who are expecting to be struck off employment.

From the provinces little news can be got which can be relied upon; the provincial authorities, either through negligence, or worse, do not keep Government well informed: but I have good reason to believe that though the brigands who infest the confines of Basilicata, Capitanata, and Principato Ultra, may have retreated before the troops sent against them, yet that they are far from being suppressed, and that no reliance can be placed upon the assertions that the country is in a state of tranquillity, when public works are obliged to be abandoned for want of protection to the workmen.

Much scandal has been created at Naples by the following incident:

Last Sunday two of the Electoral Colleges of Naples were to meet at 9 a.m. for the election of Deputies; the electors were there, but the President, whose duty it was to form the Preliminary Committee, never appeared; the elections consequently could not take place, and no one can say where the blame is.

When such things happen in Naples, what must be the case in the provinces?

On the 25th a jury sat for the first time in Naples under the provisions of the Sardinian law of the press; the Editor of the “Pietra Infernale ’’ was tried for a libellous article against Government, and condemned to three months imprisonment, and a fine of 200 ducats.

I have, &c.


* See Inclosure in No. 10,

No. 12.
Consul Bonham to Lord J. Russell.—(Received May 11.)
My Lord, Naples, May 4, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report that since the date of my despatch of the 27th April, this city has continued tranquil.

A grand breakfast is to be given by the National Guard of Naples to-morrow to the officers and men of the regular troops, in the theatre of San Carlos, in token of restored good feeling between the two bodies. The most considerate and forbearing conduct of the regular troops in the tumult of the 26th April, under circumstances of very great provocation and insult by the mob and a portion of the National Guard, merits great praise, and appears to be appreciated by the townspeople.

I hear no accounts of the continuance of the disturbances in the vicinity of Melfi, reported in my despatch of the 25th April. There can, I apprehend, be little doubt that the outbreak in that quarter has been isolated and crushed.

I have &c



No. 13.

Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson.—(Received at the Foreign Office, May 13.)

My Lord, Naples, May 5, 1861.

SINCE the disturbances of the 26th ultimo, Naples has been perfectly quiet, and no further demonstration has been made against Signor Spaventa. The National Guard, to mark their condemnation of those few amongst them who were the chief actors in the riot of that day, have invited the garrison to a banquet on Wednesday next at the Theatre del Fondo.

The 8th battalion was at first unwilling to take any part in this ovation to the army, but has ended by subscribing for twenty-five shares at ten ducats a-piece.

Yesterday the festival of St. Januarius passed off with its usual processions in perfect order, and the blood became liquid in spite of Cardinal Riario.

In Basilicata the insurrection may be said to be at an end, though the brigands when hunted from one place still manage to make head at another, but there is now in those districts a considerable military force, which will guarantee the country against any repetition of the scenes of Venosa, of the details of which I have the honour to inclose an account, mainly correct, from the “Paese. - The Papal frontier is again becoming the theatre of disturbances. Reactionary movements and attempts at invasion have taken place at different points along the extended confines of Terra di Lavoro, the Abruzzi, and the States of the Church, and more particularly near Terracina, Castelluccio, Melfi, and Veroli. The troops along the frontier are, however, in sufficient numbers to prevent any serious irruption taking place, in spite of the hostile spirit of the peasantry in those parts, and they have been reinforced by the regiment which was at Gaeta.

Among measures lately taken for the re-establishment of law and order in the provinces may be mentioned—the nomination for the six provinces of Bari, Cosenza, Reggio, Potenza, Salerno, and Caserta, of Governors from Northern Italy, on whose honesty at all events reliance can be placed; the division of the Neapolitan provinces into four military divisions, excluding that of Naples, with their respective head-quarters at Foggia, Chieti, Bari, and Catanzaro, forming a total of 8 brigades, or almost 24,000 men, exclusive of Bersaglieri, Artillery, and Engineers; the steps taken for the re-organisation of the National Guard (this has been carried out at Foggia, and a legion constituted 1,200 strong), and for hastening the administrative elections, for which the preliminary lists are reported as already completed in most of the provinces; and lastly, the appointment, on the 22nd ultimo, of Commissioners to inquire into and settle the question of the “terre demaniali. - This last was one of the measures decreed by Farini’s Government just before its fall, but never carried out, owing to the opposition it excited.

The price of grain has slightly fallen; that, and the prospect of good crops, will do much towards the settlement of the country.

The returns of the last quarter, as compared with the corresponding one of the previous year, are not as unsatisfactory as would appear at first sight: the substitution of the Sardinian for the Neapolitan Tariff will account for the falling off in the Customs and the open smuggling carried on, more especially under Garibaldi, for the extraordinary deficit in the “consumo - or produce of the octroi.

I have &c


Inclosure in No. 13.
Extract from the “Paese.?

RICEVIAMO una relazione su’ fatti del distretto di Melfi da Potenza, che pubblichiamo essendo molto esatta nei suoi particolari:

“Fin dal primi giorni di Marzo una banda di briganti, nel numero di circa 12, capitanati da Carmine Crocco Donatiello, capraro di Rionero, e da Vincenzo d’Amato di Ferrandina, barbiere (entrambi evasi dalle prigioni nel passato anno), cominciarono ad aggirarsi pe’ boschi di Lagopesole, Pietragalla, e Forenza, distanti circa 15 miglia da Potenza, capoluogo della Basilicata, facendo scorrerie e furti. Ingrossatisi a poco a poco fino al numero di circa 40, la maggior parte di soldati sbandati, aggredirono la notte del 7 Aprile il comune di Ripacandida, dove, ucciso quel Capitano della Guardia Nazionale, proclamarono il Governo di Francesco II fra i saccheggi e la devastazione. L’Intendente del distretto di Melfi, ed il Governatore della provincia, avvertiti di ciò fecero per corrieri invitare le Guardie Nazionali di tutt’ i paesi del distretto, onde in un giorno e punto convenuto si fossero tutte congregate per piombare sopra Ripacandida e snidarne quell’orda, la quale aumentata di numero (100 e più armati di fucili ed altri 300 circa con scuri) corse sopra Venosa il giorno 10 pria che la forza nazionale si fosse riunita. Ivi, dapprima incontrarono resistenza, perocché le Guardie Nazionali di quel comune e di altri paesi vicini che colà trovavansi sostennero un fuocco vivissimo di due ore apportando la morte a 10 o 11 briganti, oltre molti altri feriti. Ma per forza di tradimento e di maneggio delle plebe che, ammutinata e pronta al saccheggio, porse le scale in alcuni punti creduti inaccessibili, i banditi invasero il paese; epperò cominciato lo scoraggiamento e più tardi resa vana ogni ulteriore difesa furono le Guardie Nazionali obbligate a consegnare le armi onde risparmiare maggiori eccidii. Undici case di ricchi proprietari furono saccheggiate e distrutte per opera della plebe e de' briganti, i quali tolto il più prezioso, lasciarono a quella tutto l’agio di compiere la spoliazione. Quasi tutti gli altri ricchi proprietari risparmiati dal saccheggio furono assoggettati a grosse taglie in danaro. A circa ducati 100,000 si fa ascendere il danno arrecato a quel paese. Quattro vittime vennero sacrificate all’ira di quella efferata canaglia. Una giovinetta appartenente a nobile famiglia fu sfregiata e mutilata a colpi di sciabola come sospetta di aver tirato un colpo di pistola ad un brigante. Finalmente, dopo essersi intrattenuti quattro lunghi giorni in Venosa, seminando lo spavento e la desolazione in quei miseri abitanti, al quinto giorno (14 Aprile) ne uscirono ben ingrossati ed aumentati in numero di circa 400 muniti di schioppo ed altrettanti per lo meno armati di scuri ed altri strumenti offensivi. Si formarono due compagnie regolari di soldati sbandati, coi corrispondenti capitani e sotto-uffiziali, Crocco e D’Amato assunsero i titoli il primo di Generale delle armate di Francesco II, e l’altro di Colonnello, deponendo gli abiti rozzi fin’allora indossati e vestendosi con delle blouse di castoro; e così organizzati assalirono Lavello, dove entrarono senza resistenza, e taglieggiarono quei proprietari senza però saccheggiare le case, forse perchè non secondati dalla plebe..

“Intanto, corsa la voce de’ fatti di Venosa, le masse plebee dei vicini comuni di Melfi, Rapolla, Barile, ed Altella tumultuavano segretamente dirette da capi reazionari di paesi istessi: i capi liberali se l’avean dato a gambe per isfuggire l’ira popolare: le Guardie Nazionali inerti o in parte complici: Commissioni composte di plebaglia correvano ad invitare i capi banditi perchè co’loro seguaci si fossero recati nei rispettivi paesi a restaurare il Governo Borbonico; tutto in somma menava a credere ad una reazione organizzata su larghe basi. Anche in Avigliano, grosso paese distante circa 12 miglia da Potenza, avveniva una sommossa popolare, ma veniva tantosto repressa coll’arresto di circa 100 individui.

“La sera del giorno 15, a due ore di notte, le bande entrarono in Melfi ben accolte. Si disse che furono mandate delle carrozze per ricevervi i capi. Colà si formò quartiere-generale, ed una parte delle loro forza fu mandata in Barile onde aiutare la plebe che già avea tumultuato e preso il di sopra.

“Giungea finalmente in Rionero, per la consolare di Valva, mezzo battaglione del 30, della brigata Pisa, e corso sopra Barile sostenea nel giorno 16 un attacco di più ore, nel quale furono sbaragliati e scacciati da quel paese i banditi, colla uccisione di molti, oltre molti altri feriti ed arrestati.

“Mentre tali fatti avvenivano, il Signor Giuseppe d’Errico di Palazzo, maggiore della Guardia Nazionale del distretto di Melfi, spediva (non ostante la pioggia che veniva a secchie) corrieri nelle Province di Bari e Capitanata per dimandar forza: altrettanto praticava per tutt’ i paesi vicini; sicché nel giorno 16 trovavasi congregata una forza di circa 800 Guardie Nazionale, con 150 a cavallo, de’ paesi di Genzano, Acerenza, Forenza, Palazzo, Maschito, Lavello, Spinazzola, e Corato; e la sera di quell’istesso giorno, capitanato dallo stesso Signor d’Errico entrava in Venosa a ristabilire l’ordine costituito, accolta lira le unanimi acclamazioni di quei desolati abitanti. La mattina del giorno 17, lasciando un presidio in Venosa, muovea la colonna alla volta di Rionero onde agire di concerto colle altre Guardie Nazionali colà convenuta da molti paese, e dar braccio forte alla truppa regolare. Si corse bentosto sopra Melfi, ma i briganti n’erano usciti la notte ripiegandosi verso Carbonara, Monteverde, e Calitri, dove furono inseguiti senza posa ed in gran parte distrutti. Un residuo però gittatosi nel vicino bosco di Montichio, e riunitosi nel numero di 150 circa, col favor della notte potè di nuovo avvicinarsi al bosco Logopesole in tenimento di Avigliano, comecché la maggior parte di essi componevasi di aviglianesi. Saputosi ciò, mosse a quella volta il Signor Davide Mennuni, ricco proprietario di Genzano, con 80 Guardie Nazionali, tutte a cavallo, distaccate dal forte della colonna comandata dal Signor d’Errico. Caminando per aspri e pericolosi sentieri di quel bosco riuscirono a cogliere alla sprovvista i briganti nel giorno 25, ne uccisero più di trenta, molti ne ferirono, e gli altri sì diedero a precipitosa fuga internandosi nel bosco. Trofei di quella giornata furono nove cavalli, alcune munizioni, e la sciabla del capo bandito Crocco, il quale appena ebbe tempo di salire sul cavallo per darsi a precipitosa fuga. Continua intanto la caccia col soccorso della truppa regolare; sicché pub direi quasi del tutto spenta la reazione in Basilicata.

Si scrive da Melfi in data de’ 27 quanto segue al “Corriere Lucano?:-

“Ieri a sera una frazione della masnada traversava il territorio tra Ginestra e Venosa al numero di circa 50. S’incontrava con i Forenzesi che erano usciti in perlustrazione da Venosa, i quali dovettero ritirarsi dopo scambiate alcune fucilate, perchè in piccol numero. Stamane l’Intendente ha fatto muovere molti drappelli di Guardie Nazionali, che son giunti a vista de’ facinorosi, quali sonosi messi tosto in fuga. Le brave Guardie Nazionali però verso la Rendina tra Rapolla e Venosa riuscevano ad arrestarne quattro, di cui tre colle armi alla mano sul punto di far resistenza. Sono stati immantinenti fucilati.?

Secondo un dispaccio pervenuto al nostro Governatore la sera de’ 25 era arrivato in Eboli un forte battaglione di Granatieri, che dovean marciare il dì appresso par la strada di Valva nel distretto di Melfi. Siam certi che a quest’ora debban esser giunti al destino.

Ci si dà come certo che il prode Bochicchio ha tenuto la sua parola al famosi capo-briganti D’Amato e Donatelli (Crocco). In uno scontro presso Calitri l’uno uccideva e l’altro feriva. Non ci voleva che quel gatto per dar la caccia a simili topi.

L’arcivescovo di Conza e Campagna è stato arrestato, e messo a disposizione del Governatore di Avellino. Si hanno molti dati a ritenerlo uno de’ principali motori della reazione.

In Ruvo sono stati catturati quattro individui, che consigliavano la moltitudine ad approntare bandierie bianche, ed unirsi alla masnada.


“SINCE the beginning of March a band of robbers, about twelve in number, headed by Carmine Crocco Donatiello, a goatherd of Rionero, and by Vincenzo d’Amato of Ferrandina, a barber (both escaped convicts of last year), commenced prowling in the woods of Lagopesole, Pietragalla, and Forenza, at an average distance of fifteen miles from Potenza, chief town of the Basilicata, committing predatory inroads. Their numbers having increased by degrees to about forty, the most part discharged soldiers, they, on the night of the 7th April, assailed the Commune of Ripacandida, where having slain the commanding officer of the National Guard, they proclaimed the Government of Francesco II, amidst pillage and devastation. The Intendant of the district of Melfi, and the governor of the province having been advised thereof, summoned by couriers the National Guard of every place in the district to meet on a given day and spot, in order to fall upon Ripacandida and expel from Ripacandida the horde, which had increased (100 and more armed with muskets and about 300 with hatchets) and which had attacked Venosa on the 10th, before the National Guard had collected. Here they had first received a check, for the National Guard of that Commune and of neighbouring villages who were present, sustained a sharp fire for upwards of two hours, and killed ten or eleven of the banditti and wounded many more. However, by treason and underhand dealing with the mob, ever ready for riot and plunder, ladders were placed where access was thought impossible, and the banditti invaded the place; hence discouragement ensued, and ultimately any defence being abortive, the National Guard were obliged to give up their arms to avoid useless bloodshed. Eleven houses of the wealthier inhabitants were sacked and destroyed by the joint efforts of the populace and the banditti; the latter having selected the more valuable plunder left the remainder to the leisure spoliation of the former. Almost all the remaining wealthy inhabitants who had escaped the sack were subjected to heavy impositions in money. The damage done to the place is estimated at 100,000 ducats. Four victims were sacrificed to the frenzied rage of the mob. A young girl, the daughter of a nobleman, was dishonoured and cut to pieces from a suspicion that she had fired a pistol-shot at onc of the banditti. Finally, after a stay of four days at Venosa, and after spreading terror and desolation amongst the wretched inhabitants, on the fifth day(14th April) they departed, their numbers having increased to 400 armed with muskets, and as many more with hatchets and other weapons. They formed into two companies of discharged soldiers, with corresponding Captains and Subalterns. Croccio and D’Amato assumed the rank, the first, of General of the armies of Francesco II, the second, that of Colonel, and casting off the coarse garments they had hitherto worn for blouses; thus organised they assailed Lavello, which they occupied without resistance, and levied fines upon the householders, without plundering the houses, perhaps becanse they were not seconded by the mob.

“Meanwhile the news of the events at Venosa roused the populace of the Communes of Melfi, Rapolla, Barile, and Atella, secretly stirred up by the reactionary Chiefs of those places; the Chiefs of the Liberals had taken to flight to avoid the popular wrath. Commissions consisting of the lower orders hurried to invite the principal banditti to come with their followers to their respective towns to restore the Bourbonic Government; all led to the belief in a reaction organized upon an extensive basis. Even at Avigliano, a large place distant about twelve miles from Potenza, an insurrection of the populace took place, but it was immediately suppressed, and about 100 individuals were arrested.

“The evening of the 15th, about 10 o'clock at night, the banditti entered Melfi, and were well received. It was said that carriages had been sent on to receive the Chiefs. Their head-quarters were established, and a portion of the force was sent to Barile to aid the populace, which had risen and was gaining the upper hand.

“At length half a battalion of the 30th of the Pisa Brigade arrived at Rionero, and pushing on to Barile sustained, on the 16th, an attack for two hours, in which the banditti were dispersed and driven from that place, with thp loss of many slain, wounded, and taken prisoners.

“Whilst these events occurred, Signor Giuseppe d’Errico di Palazzo, Major of the National Guard of the district of Melfi, had, notwithstanding the rain, which was pouring down in torrents, dispatched couriers to the provinces of Bari and Capitanata for forces, as also to all the neighbouring places, so that on the 16th a force of about 800 National Guards, with 150 Horse, had collected from Genzano, Acerenza, Forenza, Palazzo, Maschito, Lavello, Spinazzola, and Corato; and on the evening of the same day Signor D’Errico entered Venosa to re-establish order, amidst the unanimous acclamations of the desolate inhabitants. The morning of the 17th the column, moving in the direction of Rionero, to act in concert with the other National Guards collected from the neighbouring places, proceeded to support the regular troops. They soon took the direction of Melfi, but the banditti were gone the preceding night, falling back upon Carbonaro, Monteverde, and Calitri, where they were pursued without delay, and the greater number routed. A remnant, however, had sought refuge in the adjoining wood of Montichio, and reuniting to the number of about 150, under cover of the night were enabled to approach the Wood of Lagopesole, to the relief of Avigliano, as the majority of them were from that place. On hearing this Signor David Mennuni, a rich proprietor of Genzano, with 80 of the mounted National Guard, detached from the column commanded by Signor Errico, proceeded in that direction. Overcoming obstacles of the ground in the dangerous passages tbrough the wood, they succeeded in surprising the banditti on the 25th; more than thirty of them were killed, many wounded, and the rest took themselves to flight through the wood. The spoils of that day were nine horses, some ammunition, and the sabre of the bandit Crocco, who had scarcely rime to mount his horse and escape. The chase of the banditti continues, with the assistance of the troops, so that the reaction in the Basilicata may be considered at an end.?

From Melfi, the 27th, they write as follows, to the “Corriere Lucano?: —

“Last night a fraction of the band traversed the territory between Ginestra and Venosa, in number about fifty. They fell in with the Forenzesi, who were out exploring, but who after exchanging a few shots were, from inefficient numbers, obliged to retreat. This morning the Intendant sent out a few troops of the National Guard, who carne within sight of the insurgents; the latter immediately took to flight. Our brave National Guard, however, succeeded, in the direction of the Rondina, between Rapolla and Venosa, in arresting four, three of whom were armed and on the point of resisting; they were immediately shot.?

According to a despatch which reached our Governor on the evening of the 25th, a strong battalion of Grenadiers had reached Eboli, and were about to march the following day by the Valva road, in the district of Melfi; we feel assured that by this rime they have arrived at their destination.

We are assured that the valiant Bochicchio has kept his promise with the famous brigand chiefs D’Amato and Donatelli (Crocco). In an encounter near Calitri one was slain and the other wounded. He was the cat for such mice.

The Archbishop of Conza and Campagna has been arrested and placed under the orders of the Governor of Avellino. There are many proof to show that he is one of the principal instigators of the reaction.

At Ruvo four individuate have been arrested; they were advising the mob to prepare white flags, and unite with the gang.

No. 14.
Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson.—(Received at the Foreign Office, May 20.)
Sir,  Naples, May 13, 1861.

NAPLES is perfectly quiet. The irruption across the Papal. frontier into the Terra di Lamo mentioned in my despatch of the 5th instant was promptly repelled, many made prisoners, and shot, and amongst them some priests; the rest recrossed the frontier, and were disarmed by the French troops.

A scrutiny into the composition of the National Guard is being proceeded with, with a view to its re-organisation; and in consequence the National Guard of certain villages which abetted the Reactionists, such as Carbonara in the borders of Basilicata, and Castelcicala in the Terra di Lamo, are to be disbanded.

I have, &c.


No. 15.
Consul Bonham to Lord J. Russell.—(Received May 22.)
My Lord, Naples, May 10, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that a band of about 700 marauders, principally old Bourbon troops, coming, it is believed, across the Roman frontier from the direction of Terracina, attacked Fondi on the 3rd instant, and having got possession of that place, which was weakly guarded, commenced ravaging the country. A body of regular troops were sent against them, who carne up with them on the 5th, and after a short conflict put them to flight, pursuing them to the Mountains, where, in the vicinity of Monticelli, the remnant of the band are still concealed. Many were killed, some are believed to have again escaped into the Roman territory.

I have, &c.


No. 16.
Consul Bonham to Lord J. Russell.—(Received May 22.)
My Lord, Naples, May 15, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report that the banquet given by the National Guard to the officers of the regular troops, which was fixed for the 5th instant, having been deferred from that day, took place yesterday in the theatre of San Carlos, which was very handsomely fitted up and arranged for the occasion. Tables were laid for 1,200 persons, and probably fully that number were present at the banquet; the boxes were filled with spectators, principally ladies; the toasts to the King, to Garibaldi, Cavour, and others, were all received with vivas— that to Garibaldi with great enthusiasm; on the whole, the entertainment is considered to have been very successful, and it is hoped may conduce to restore a better understanding between the troops and National Guard. Nothing happily occurred to mar the good feeling of the day. The result might have been very different. A shell with the fusee lighted, and containing several pounds of gunpowder, was accidentally discovered just at the commencement of the banquet in a doorway opposite the principal entrance to San Carlos: fortunately there was time and presence of mind to extinguish the fusee; had it exploded during the banquet, it would no doubt have occasioned great. confusion, and perhaps a panic in which many lives would have been sacrificed.

As respects the provinces it is difficult to obtain reliable Information, but I believe they are becoming more tranquil. The price of grain has fallen considerably, which gives relief to the working classes. Some brigands were reported a few days ago as having appeared near Caserta, but a party of National Guard and a company of Bersaglieri being at once despatched after them, tour were killed, and the rest dispersed. Nothing more is heard of the reactionist troops who were routed near Fondi on the 3rd instant: it is probable those who have not been shot have succeeded in recrossing the Roman frontier; the Italian troops, I believe, did not make prisoners.

I have, &c.


No. 17.
Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson.—( Received at the Foreign Office, May 24.)
Sir,  Naples, May 15, 1861.

YESTERDAY evening at 8 o’clock about 800 persona sat down to the monster banquet offered in the Theatre San Carlo to the garrison by the National Guard of Naples. The numbers of the inviters and invited were almost equal, and amongst the guests were the principal authorities of the town, the Commendatore Nigra, General Turr, and the officers of the household of the Prince de Carignano.

Every box was crowded with spectators, principally ladies, who when the dinner was over, and the tables removed, descended into the area of the theatre, and dancing was begun, and carried on to a late hour.

Nothing occurred to mar the scene, which was striking from the number of uniforms and the brilliancy of the illumination; and the toasts to Victor Emmanuel, Garibaldi, Cavour, Cialdini, &c., were all well received, though, as usuai, the greatest enthusiasm was excited by the name of Garibaldi, and the music of his Hymn, which in the course of the evening was frequently repeated amidst the greatest applause. The whole of the expense, amounting -to about 1,000/., was defrayed by voluntary subscriptions on the part of the National Guard. The news of the recall of Nigra, and the departure of the Prince, has been received here with the same indifference which marked their reception, but the latter event is not yet generally known. For to-day there is announced a funeral mass, a procession, and other solemnities in commemoration of the martyrs, and anniversary of 15th May, 1848.

Bands of highway robbers, without any political colour whutever, are infesting Caserta, Nola, Castellamare, and other places in the neighbourhood of Naples. It is hoped that the levy of 36,000 men announced for the Neapolitan provinces will rid them of much of this unemployed ruffianism, the remains of the Bourbonist army.

At the sale of the late Count of Syracuse’s property, the collection of Cumoean antiquities was bought by His Royal Highness the Prince de Carignano, and presented to the National, late Bourbonic Museum.

I have, &c.


No. 18.
Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson.— (Received at the Foreign, May 27.)
Sir, Naples, May 21, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report that the Count Ponza di San Martino arrived yesterday evening at Naples, and that His Royal Highness the Prince de Carignan embarked immediately afterwards for Genoa, accompanied by the Commendatore Nigra; and at the same time to inclose from the official journal of yesterday the addresses issued by the Prince to the people, National Guard, army and navy, expressing his regret at leaving them, and his appreciation of their Services, and of the support he has met with from all classes.

Telegraphic reports from the principal provincial towns announce that the Administrative elections, begun on the 19th instant, were proceeding satisfactorily.

I have, &c.


Inclosure in No. 18.
Addresses issued by the Prince of Carignan to the Inhabitants of Naples, Sfc.

Italiani delle Provincie Napolitane,

PARTO da questa bella e nobile parte d’Italia colla coscienza d’aver voluto e d’aver operato quanto per me si poteva a vantaggio vostro e nell’interesse del Re e della Patria. Non ho certamente potuto compiere tutto quello che avrei desiderato. Ma lascio il paese in condizione materiali, morali e politiche migliori, e colla speranza di più prospero avvenire. Lascio importanti riforme bene avviate, le elezioni municipali compiute, prossima ad intraprendersi une grande linea di strade ferrate, rinvigorita l’azione della giustizia, l’istruzione pubblica iniziata, la Guardia Nazionale fornita d’armi e in via di ordinamento, rispettata l’Autorità del Governo, frenati i partiti estremi e repressi i loro colpevoli tentativi, compiuta più che a metà la importante e difficile opera dell’unificazione nazionale. Tutto ciò potei attuare o iniziare mercé l’appoggio che ho trovato nella grande maggioranza delle popolazioni Napoletane, e mercé il loro buon senso, il loro patriottismo, la loro devozione al Re ed alla causa Italiana. Accettate l’espressione sincera della mia riconoscenza. Date il vostro concorso all’egregio personaggio a cui viene ora affidata l’amministrazione di queste Provincie. Pensate a quanto ancora rimane a fare per la unificazione completa della gran patria Italiana, e agevolate al Governo l’armamento nazionale rispondendo con alacrità alla chiamata delle leve di terra e di mare.

Al rincrescimento ch’io provo nell’allontanarmi da questo nobile paese è di qualche conforto la speranza di lasciare non ingrata memoria di me, e il pensiero di potermi rendere l’interprete fedele dei generosi sentimenti vostri e dei vostri desiderii patriottici presso il glorioso nostro Re Vittorio Emmanuele.



Ufficiali, Graduati e Militi della Guardia Nazionale,

Nel prender commiato da voi sento il dovere di ringraziarvi della cordiale accoglienza che mi avete fatto, dell’efficace concorso che mi avete prestato, e del patriottismo con cui voi sapeste vegliare alla pubblica salvezza ed al mantenimento dell’ordine. Io son lieto di poter confermare al Re l’alto concetto ch’esso ha del vostro attaccamento alla sua persona ed alle istituzioni costituzionali della monarchia, e di poterlo assicurare che esso ha in voi i più animosi e i più fermi difensori della causa nazionale. Continuate, sotto la direzione dell’illustre vostro Generale, a dar prova di quella disciplina, di quel rispetto alle leggi, e di quella devozione al Re che vi ottennero il plauso d’Italia e dell’Europa.



Uffiziali, Sotto-Uffiziali e Soldati delle Truppe stanziate nel sesto Dipartimento Militare,

Dopo le splendide vittorie della scorsa campagna, vi toccò di compiere in queste provincie una non men difficile e non meno gloriosa impresa, quella di reprimere il brigantaggio e la reazione, e di concorrere colla Guardia Nazionale al mantenimento dell’ordine. Le fatiche, le marce, le privazioni, i pericoli aumentarono in voi l’antico coraggio, la costanza eroica ed il patriottismo che resero ammirato dovunque l'esercito Italiano. Il vostro prudente e dignitoso contegno, nelle difficili circostanze in cui vi trovaste, fu superiore ad ogni elogio.

Io sono orgoglioso d’avervi avuto sotto il mio comando, e sarò fortunato di poter ripetere al Re che con tali soldati i futuri destini d’Italia sono per sempre Assicurati



Ufficiali, Sotto-Ufficiali, Marinai e Soldati del Dipartimento Marittimo Meridionale,

La Marina Italiana rinnovò in questi ultimi tempi i grandi esempii che tanto l’onorarono nelle età passate. Testimonio io stesso delle gloriose vostre gesta sotto. Gaeta, del vostro coraggio e della vostra disciplina, rammenterò con soddisfazione d’avervi avuto sotto il mio comando, e farò fede presso il Re, nostro augusto Sovrano, dei servizii eminenti che avete reso alla santa causa della nazionalità e dell’unità Italiana.



Italians of the Neapolitan Provinces,

I LEAVE this noble part of Italy conscious of liaving done all I could for your advantage, and in the interest of your King and country. I have not, it is true, been able to do all l could have wished; but I leave the country improved, and with the hopes of a more prosperous future. I leave important reforms begun; the municipal elections completed; a great line of railroads about to be begun; an impulse given to the action of justice; public instruction initiated; the National Guard furnished with arms, and in course of organization; the authorities respected; the extreme parties, and their culpable attempts, curbed; and the important work of national unity half accomplished. All this I have been enabled to do, thanks to the help of the majority of the Neapolitans, to their good sense, patriotism, and devotion to King and country. Accept my thanks, and give your aid to the illustrious man now appointed to rule you. Think how much remains to be done for the entire union of the great Italian country; and help the Government to arm the nation by answering with alacrity to their call.

The regret at leaving you is alleviated by the thought that I leave no ungrateful impression behind me, and that I shall be the faithful interpreter of your patriotic sentiments to our King.



To the National Guard,

In taking leave of you, I thank you cordially for the reception you have given me, for your efficacious help, and the patriotism you have shown. I shall be proud to confirm the King in his high opinion of your attachment to himself and the Constitution. Continue, under the direction of your illustrious General, to give proofs of that discipline, that respect for law, and that devotion to the King, which has obtained you universal applause.



To the Officers and Soldiers of the Army,

After the glorious victories of the past campaign, you have had the not less difficult task of repressing brigandage and reaction here, with. the help of the National Guard. Fatigue, marching, privations, and dangers, only increased your courage, constancy, and admirable patriotism. Your conduct has been above all praise! I am proud to have had yon under my command, and shall tell the King that with such soldiers the destinies of Italy are secure.



Officers and Seamen of the Navy,

The Italian Navy has shown itself worthy of old times. A witness of your prowess at Gaeta, I shall ever be proud to have commanded you, and shall faithfully bear witness to the King of the great Services you have rendered your country.


No. 19.
Consul Bonham to Sir J. Hudson.—(Received at the Foreign Office, May 29.)
Sir, Naples, May 22, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to inclose translation of a letter I havé received from the Vice-Consul at Taranto, reporting disturbances in that district, which, though quelled for the moment, he appears to consider as likely to be renewed ere long, owing to the want of an adequate force of regular troops.

I have &c


Inclosure in No. 19.
Vice-Consul Rondoni to Consul Bonham.
(Extract.) Taranto, May 19, 1861.

YESTERDAY a disturbance took place, got up by a few wretches in order to expel the Intendente and the Judge from the district, as they were not men after their taste.

The troops were called under arms.

The National Guard immediately ran to the spot, and were obliged to use their arms, wounding a few of the insurgents and arresting others, since which date we have been partially quiet, which state of things is not likely to last long, as the leaders of the disturbance have not been arrested, for want of legal evidence, and as there is no regular force to prevent further outbreaks.

No. 20.
Sir J. Hudson to Lord J. Russell.—(Received May 29.)
My Lord, Turin, May 26, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to inclose herewith a copy and translation of the Address of Count Ponza de S. Martino to the Italians of the Neapolitan Provinces.

I have, &c.


Inclosure in No. 20.

Italiani delle Provincie Napolitane,

ONORATO dalla fiducia del Re, io assumo sotto le direzioni del suo Governo l’amministrazione di queste Provincie.

Dopo che avete ricuperato una patria degna di tal nome, e mentre vi ha ancora chi ci contesta il diritto di essere Italiani, vengo tra voi col proposito di dare forza, energia, ed unità all’azione di tutti quei buoni cittadini che intendono di consolidare e di rendere durevole l’unione dei popoli Italiani.

La forza di un Magistrato Costituzionale sta essenzialmente nel concorso che gli prestano coloro stessi nel cui interessi deve far rispettare ed eseguire le leggi.

Questo concorso io lo invoco, e spero mi sia universalmente prestato colla franchezza e colla dignità che debbono presiedere alle relazioni di un popolo libero coi suoi magistrati.

E con particolare fiducia invoco la cooperazione di tutte le Guardie Nazionali, le quali tanto nella città di Napoli come nelle provincie diedero moltiplici luminose prove di amore alla patria, alla libertà, ed alle leggi.

I rapidi e radicali mutamenti operati nella nostra rivoluzione hanno inevitabilmente rallentato li pubblici servizii, e prodotto nei medesimi qualche confusione. Grandemente importa pel nostro comune interesse di rinfrancarne con prontezza l’andamento, ed io assumendo personalmente la superiore direzione di tutte le amministrazioni, procurerò di compiere al mio dovere, accertandomi che in tutti gli uffizii pubblici regni immancabilmente quella vita d’ordine e quel lavoro regolare che sono necessarii per dare all’azione del Governo un carattere calmo ed energico ad un tempo, e per soddisfare le legittime esigenze dei cittadini.

Confido che ognuna di coteste amministrazioni vorrà concorrere efficacemente nella sfera delle proprie attribuzioni alla piena ed intiera osservanza delle leggi, cosicché io debba andar superbo di essere a capo del Governo.

Sarà mio studio costante di promuovere nel miglior modo lo sviluppo della prosperità morale e materiale di queste Provincie, con che io seguirò li generosi intendimenti di quell’augusto Principe di cui il patriottismo e l’alta intelligenza cotanto giovarono all’amministrazione dell’Italia nostra ne’ più difficili momenti della sua rigenerazione, e che stette poc’anzi con voi Rappresentante del magnanimo nostro Re.

Fedele osservatore delle leggi e delle intenzioni del Governo, sarà mia cura di rispettare e proteggere senza passioni o debolezze le libertà ed i diritti di tutti, e spero che, quando la mia delicata missione sia cessata, dobbiate riconoscere aver io sempre onestamente e coscienziosamente adempiuto al mio mandato, lavorando per voi, pel Re, e per l’Italia.

Napoli, addì 21 Maggio, 1861.

(Firmato) DI S. MARTINO.


Italians of the Neapolitan Provinces,

THE King has confided to me, under the direction of his Government, the administration of these Provinces.

Now that you have re-won a country worthy of the name, and while there are still some who contest our right to call ourselves Italians, I come among you with the intention of giving force, energy, and unity to the action of those good citizens who wish to consolidate and render lasting the union of the Italian people.

The strength of a Constitutional Magistrate lies in the assistance given him by those for whose benefit he enforces the law.

I cali for this help, and hope it will be afforded me with that frankness wlnch should subsist between us.

I particularly invoke the help of the National Guard* which has given sucla distinguished proofs of patriotism.

The late rapid political changes have unavoidably produced some disorder in the various branches of the public Service, in repairing which, so absolutely necessary, I shall take care to see that the required spirit of order and regular labours prevails everywhere.

I trust that all branches of the public administration will concur efficaciously in respect for the laws.

I shall do all I can for your moral and material welfare, thus carrying out the wishes of the august Prince so lately the Representative of our Sovereign here.

I shall dispassionately respect the rights and liberties of all; and when my mission shall cease I hope you will admit that I have honestly laboured for you, for the King, and for Italy.

Naples, May 21, 1861.

(Signed) DI S. MARTINO.

No. 21.
Mr, Saurin to Sir J. Hudson.—(Received at the Office, June 4.)
Sir, Naples, May 23, 1861.

I INCLOSE herewith, copies of the official Journal of Naples, containing circulars addressed by the Lieutenant-General to the Governor and public functionaries of the Neapolitan provinces, recommending political impartiality, strict attention to duties, discretion in giving orders, and energy in carrying them out; announcing his intention to inspect minutely, and in person, every office; and assuming the responsibility of the whole administration.

Great expectations have been raised as to the probable result of the change of Governors. It cannot be denied that in some respects the position of Count P. de S. Martino is more favourable than that of his predecessors.

Many awkward questions have been either settled or dropped for the moment. The antagonism between Garibaldi and Cavour, between the redshirts and the national army, no longer occupies the public, or gives rise to demonstrations; the ultra-liberal press, at one time savage in its denunciations of Cavour and Piedmontese policy, now contents itself with general dissatisfaction, and has even hopes of the new Lieutenant-General; the reaction, if not completely crushed, is now no more than brigandage, except where organized across the border; the political elections are at last at an end, and those for the provincial and municipal administration will shortly be completed; the laws for the administration of church property and for the abolition of the “foro ecclesiastico - are in the course of being carried out; in the hands of M. Mancini, constitutional weapons have in every case proved successful against obdurate priests; and even the peasantry are beginning, though slowly, to believe in their emancipation from the tyranny of confessors and the Bourbons. The prices of provisions are, it is true, still high, and labour is unemployed; but a very short time will see the commencement of those railway undertakings which will give work to thousands. The National Guard in the provinces is in the course of reconstruction under officers chosen from the army for the purpose; in Naples the new police is organized, and ought by this time to be thoroughly initiated into their duties; and the Minister of the Interior is beginning to open his eyes to the inexpediency of arrest on evidence insufficient for a trial; the irritation of those whose interests have been unfavourably affected by political changes, and of the many disappointed place-hunters has had time to cool down. The return of the Bourbons is now impossible, and the pretensions of Murat cause, at all events, no present danger or difficulties. No particular question agitates the country; it is a moment of political exhaustion and apathy: it needs but a firm hand at the helm of the State to restore confidence and make the laws respected for the Neapolitans to become apt pupils in the school of Constitutional Government.

If this be so, Count P. de S. Martino was fully justified, when he declared to the officers of the National Guard his intention of resorting to no exceptional measures, but of relying for the settlement of the country on the established laws alone, carried out with vigour and determination.

It remains to be seen whether his energy will be a match for the passive opposition of the great mass of employès, and whether bis personal supervision of administrative details, bis avowed intention of listening to men of all shades of political opinions, and the importation of Northern Italians into many of the Government offices, will enable him to succeed where so many of his predecessore have failed.

I have, &c.


Inclosure in No. 21.
Circulars addressed by the Lieutenant-General of the Neapolitan
to the Governors and Public Functionaries.

NELL'ASSUMERE l’amministrazione delle Provincie Napolitane credo opportuno di dare a tutti li capi di pubblici uffizi ed anche a tutti gli impiegati alcune brevi direzioni a norma della loro condotta.

Il maggiore impedimento che ogni paese ha sempre provato a costituirsi regolarmente nei mutamenti radicali della sua esistenza provenne sempre da ciò che in tali contingenze facilmente s’improntano di colore politico anche gli atti delle varie amministrazioni. Io deggio quinda prima di ogni cosa avvertire che in tutta la gerarchia governativa l'indirizzo politico appartiene esclusivamente al Parlamento ed al Governo del Re, e che nei gradi subalterni non è lecito entrare in questo campo, salvo a chi ne abbia, sotto la dipendenza governativa, l’obbligo espresso dalla natura del suo impiego.

Dichiaro pertanto che mancherebbero gravemente al loro dovere quelli impiegati i quali dimostrando passioni politiche dessero ragione al cittadini di dubitare che gli uffizi del Governo non tengano nel compimento del loro mandato e nell’applicazione delle leggi un’assoluta rettitudine e la più stretta imparzialità.

Ciascuno si persuada che la miglior politica di un impiegato quella si è che consiste nel promuovere con costante fermezza l’osservanza e l’esecuzione delle leggi. Con ciò verrà ad infondersi nell’animo di tutti i cittadini, qualunque sia la loro condizione, il convincimento di trovar sempre in chi serve il Re ed il paese un’assoluta imparzialità, un rispetto sincero di tutti i diritti, ed una vita morale tutta dedicata al lavoro, e questo sarà il miglior titolo di ognuno alla benevolenza del Governo, alla gratitudine pubblica.

Avvertirò in secondo luogo come una delle principali condizioni di vitalità de’ servizi pubblici stia nell’assoluta e rigorosa osservanza delle regole della gerarchia. Prego quindi tutti i capi delle amministrazioni pubbliche di portare un’attenzione speciale a ciò che si rispettino sempre le attribuzioni de’ capi degli uffizi subordinati, nell’invigilare onde ciascuno eserciti la propria autorità e si faccia obbedire, e nel promuovere tutte le disposizioni necessarie a reprimere ogni abuso. Osservando puntualmente queste prescrizioni i capi di ogni uffizio vengono a tenere mezzo sicuro e sufficiente per accertarsi della moralità e della regolarità del servizio; ed io formalmente dichiaro che intendo di renderli risponsabili personalmente ogni qual volta avvenisse di riconoscere in un modo certo che sianvi nei loro uffizi abusi che essi non abbiano denunziato, ed al quali non abbiano cercato di porre riparo.

So quanto sia delicato e difficile quest’ assunto, ma so del pari che il paese con una generale uniformità di sentimenti vuole che il Governo faccia rigorosamente sentire la sua azione, e siccome mi è noto per lunga esperienza che questa non altrimenti si sviluppa salvo nella regolarità dell’andamento dei pubblici uffizi, quindi, mentre da un canto mi ricuserò incisamente di prendere disposizioni troppo improvvise e facili ad essere ingiuste, avverto che è mia intenzione di compiere questo mio mandato assoggettando continuamente tutti gli uffizi a minutissime ispezioni, le quali valgano ad illuminare l’opinione pubblica sulle loro condizioni, e porgano l’occasione di prendere in caso di bisogno i provvedimenti che ho indicati.

I doveri di chi amministra la cosa pubblica crescono in ragione della libertà di cui godono i cittadini, perchè è solo col pieno adempimento di tali doveri che gli uffici pubblici vengono ad acquistare quella stabile autorità morale, senza la quale ogni Governo libero è impossibile. Gradisca, &c.

Napoli, li 22 Maggio, 1861.

Il Luogotenente-Generale del Re,


Alli Signori Governatori, Procuratori-Generali,

e Capi delle Pubbliche Amministrazioni.


Doppio è il mandato che le leggi affidano a V. S. Illustrissima, uno intieramente amministrativo, l’altro principalmente politico.

Le direzioni che ho date a tutti gli uffizi pubblici con altra lettera circolare in data d’oggi non bastano ad indicarle tutte le intenzioni del Governo rispetto al modo col quale sono da compiere i doveri politici, ed in aggiunta alla medesima le osservo:

Che opera del Governo deve essere quella di stare anche in politica talmente sul terreno della legalità che esso venga col fatto a trovarsi al di sopra de’ partiti.

Quindi ella farà opera molto opportuna quando ottenga che tutte le principali persone di diversa opinione vengano francamente a presentarle ed i desiderii e le lagnanze loro, perchè è impossibile di non trovare in queste comunicazioni elementi di cui convenga tenere conto.

Ma nel tempo stesso l’avverto di stare molto in sulla guardia per non prendere con chicchessia impegni atti a smuoverla da quella via prudente, imparziale, e ferma che è nelle mire del Governo del Re.

Sarà bene ch’ella per mezzo di continue informazioni si tenga al fatto delle persone che nella sua circoscrizione godono maggior fiducia per probità, per disinteresse, e per intelligenza; che procuri di mettersi con loro in relazione sia per indurle a coadiuvare il Governo nelle amministrazioni locali ed altre, quant’anche per ricercarne i consigli nelle occasioni difficili.

Sarà pure necessario di tenersi bene informati di quelle persone che o per abuso d’influenza sotto il cessato Governo, o per altri titoli, siano gravemente compromesse colle popolazioni, acciocché in ogni circostanza il Governo sappia subito quali sono le condizioni dell’opinione pubblica rispetto alle medesime.

Ma la prego di tener bene in mente di non accogliere mal nè elogi nè accuse vaghe; per le accuse principalmente converrà sempre ricercarne accuratamente le prove e dichiarare ricisamente che senza prova non si può fondare alcun provvedimento..

Nelle cose di sicurezza e di ordine pubblico converrà usare risolutamente di tutt’ i mezzi che le leggi mettono a disposizione del Governo, e sarà opportuno che l’azione delle autorità politiche proceda d’accordo col Ministero Pubblico.

E quindi intenzione del Governo del Re che i Signori Governatori, Intendenti, Questori e Delegati di Pubblica Sicurezza abbiano quotidiane relazioni personali co’ rappresentanti del Pubblico Ministero, i quali, presa in queste conferenze minuta conoscenza de’ fatti che nuocciono alla sicurezza ed all’ordine, concertino li modi di provvedimento.

Tutte le autorità investite dalle leggi del diritto di richiedere la forza pubblica dovranno poi avvertire di concepire le loro richieste in modo che non lascino mal dubbio né altra risponsabilità in chi le deve eseguire fuori che quella della esecuzione.

Ed io intanto le assicuro che provvedendo esse con energia e sincero intendimento alla conservazione del! ordine, sarò lieto di far risalire a me stesso la risponsabilità degli atti loro.

Abbia poi ella sempre presente che, se conviene di andare guardinghi nel dar ordini, e di restringersi al soli provvedimenti di comprovata necessità e di assoluta legalità, è altrettanto indispensabile che, dati una volta, in alcun modo non si ceda nella esecuzione, poiché la forza deve sempre rimanere alla legge.

La Guardia Nazionale sarà oggetto di tutte le possibili di lei cure. Ella deve occuparsene con tanto maggior desiderio e compiacenza, in quanto che i fatti già dimostrano come il paese si possa ripromettere dalla medesima i maggiori elementi d’ordine e di prospero avvenire. Ella procurerà pertanto che in ogni luogo se ne compia l’organizzazione giusta il prescritto della legge. Che se ne formino i battaglioni. Che se ne spinga l’istruzione colla maggior possibile celerità affinché essa possa nel più breve termine bastare da sola alla custodia interna, quando eventi guerreschi ci mettessero nella necessità di disporre altrimenti delle truppe stanziali.

E particolare di lei ufficio di provvedere a che penetri nella Guardia medesima il sentimento della legalità del servizio. Questa legalità principalmente consiste in ciò che, salvo il caso di flagrante reato, non si proceda mal dalla Guardia Nazionale ad alcun arresto se non in esecuzione di mandati regolari dell’autorità giudiziaria o di formali ed esplicite consegne dell’autorità di Sicurezza Pubblica.

Ora avvertirò come fra le più importanti missioni che abbia presentemente l’autorità politica siavi quella di estendere col massimo zelo e con incessante attività la sua vigilanza sui fatti d’ogni natura che si riferiscano alla regolarità dei pubblici servizi, ed intendo che di questi mi sia sempre fatta relazione diretta, onde per mezzo de' dicasteri competenti io possa infondere in tutte le Amministrazioni quello spirito e quella unità di azione che sono la principale necessità di ogni ben ordinato Governo. E da ciò ne verrà a’ pubblici uffici meritata fama di utili servigi, ed io sarò meglio in grado di conoscere quali tra detti uffici debbano preferibilmente essere assoggettati ad ispezione.

Mi riservo di dare col mezzo de’ diversi Dicasteri quelli ordini più minuti che sono all’andamento di tutti i servigi.

Gradisca, &c.

Napoli, li 22 Maggio, 1861.

Il Luogotenente-Generale del Re,


Alli Signori Governatori, Procuratori-Generali,

e Capi delle Pubbliche Amministrazioni.


The Lieutenant-General of the King to the Governors, &c., of the Neapolitan Provinces.

IN undertaking the Administration of the Neapolitan provinces, I think it judicious to give the Heads of the different Department» some directions for their guidance.

The great difficulty of a newly organised country is to prevent the administrative acts being affected by political colour. I must, therefore, remind you that political initiative belongs to Parliament and the King, and does not come within the sphere of subalterns: and any employés who, giving vent to political passions, raise a doubt as to the strict impartiality of the Government in applying the laws, will gravely offend. The best claim of employés to the approbation of Government will be by promoting a steady and exact observance of the laws, thereby promoting public confidence in the Government.

Secondly, all abuses in public Department» must cease; and the Heads of Departments will be held responsible for any abuses they may refrain from disclosing, or not reform.

The strictest regularity in the public offices being necessary, I am determined, taking care to avoid all injustice, to subject them constantly to the closest inspection.

The duties of public servants increase with public liberty, and it is only by faithfully performing them that public offices gain that firm moral authority without which all liberal Government is impossible.

Naples, May 22, 1861.


General Lieutenancy of the King in the Neapolitan

Provinces to the Governors, &c.

The laws charge you with two duties, one administrative, the other political.

The Government ought to be in politics above all party feelings. The Government ought also to invite those of an opposite opinion to express their complaints, in which there will be much that ought to be attended to. But you must never depart from that firm, prudent, and impartial course which the Government of the King intends tu pursue.

You should search out and invite the help of those most remarkable in your district for good faith, probity, and intelligence; and also be well informed concerning those persona most compromised and in ill-odour under the Bourbon Government for their abuse of power; but never rely on simple praises, or vague accusations.

You should use resolutely in support of public security all the means which the law allows you. The Governors, Intendants, &c., are to be in daily relation with the representatives of the Public Ministry for the promotion of public order.

All authorities empowered to invoke the public force must take care that no responsibility beyond that of executing the order rest with those who have to carry it out; and 1 shall not hesitate to assume the responsibility of such energetic acts done in the course of order.

And if, on the one hand, all orders given must be strictly legal; on the other hand, all firmness must be shown in carrying them out.

I strongly recommend to your attention the immediate and complete organisation of the National Guard.

One of the chief duties of the political authorities is to attend to the regularity of the public service, in order that by means of competent Bureaux 1 may infuse that spirit and unity of action so necessary to good government into all the branches of the Administration.

Naples, May 22, 1861.


To the Governors, &c., and Heads of Public Offices.


No. 22.
Consul Bonham to Lord J. Russell.—(Received, June 7.)
My Lord, Naples, May 31, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that this city and the provinces are generally tranquil.

I called yesterday, in company with Captain Paynter, R.N., of Her Majesty Ship “Exmouth, - on his Excellency Count de San Martino, Lieutenant-General of the King in these provinces. In speaking of the state of the country, his Excellency expressed himself very hopefully as to its general prospects. He stated that he found the reactionary and insurgent bands who had been so much spoken of amounted in all to five, the strongest of which had never exceeded 150 men in number, and no one of there at present exceeded 100: he stated that of these persons, estimating them altogether as 500 men, he had the certain conviction that not 50 of them are actuated by political motives; they were simply plunderers on the highway, who dispersed and fled whenever any regular troops carne near them, and would, he hoped, be shortly entirely broken up. He further said that he found nothing in the spirit and disposition of the people which could render necessary any measures of repression beyond the ordinary law, and that he had every hope of being able very shortly to bring into working condition the regular System of the constitutional laws. He stated there were a great number of discontented people, as was to be expected, those who had lost place, or position, or rank owing to the late changes; that he had no intention of quarrelling with or molesting them on account of their discontent or opposition, being satisfied they were neither numerous nor energetic enough to proceed to overt acts of rebellion, and he hoped to be able by degrees to remove or lessen the causes of their discontent, and bring them over to the side of Italy.

I have, &c.


No. 23.
Consul Bonham to Lord J. Russell—(Received, June 10)
My Lord,Naples, June 3, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship tbat the national féte appointed to be held on the first Sunday in June took place yesterday, and passed off with entire tranquillity. The streets were crowded during the day, and also till late at night; there were numberless spectators observing the illuminations, but no “vivas - or manifestations of opinion of any kind were heard.

In the course of the day, his Excellency the Luogotenente laid the first stone of the railway intended to be made to connect this part of the country with the coast of the Adriatic.

I have &c


No. 24.
Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson.—(Received at the Foreign Office, June 11.)
Sir, Naples, June 2, 1861.

TO-DAY was celebrated in Naples, for the first time, the féte of the Constitution.

There was a parade of the National Guard; new colours were given to all the regiments in garrison: a mass was performed in the church of San Lorenzo by Monsignor Caputo, the Capellano Maggiore, and was attended by all officials, civil and military. In the University the statues of St. Thomas di Aquino and of Vico were inaugurated, as well as the bust of Victor Emmanuel, and the national banner presented to the students. Lottery prizes were drawn for by the people, and marriage portions for girls; the first stone of the Neapolitan terminus for the great line about to be constructed by Salerno, the Ofante, and Foggia to the Tronto, was laid with great ceremony by the Lieutenant-General; and this evening the whole town is illuminated. The weather being favourable all classes took a part in the festivities, which were undisturbed by even the usual rumours of apprehended disturbances.

The Duke de Cajanello is still in prison, although it now appears that the evidence against him is so incomplete that, should he be brought to trial, he must be acquitted, unless the judges allow their decision to be influenced by the popular feeling, in the same manner that it formerly was by the authority of the Court. Meanwhile the Duke’s friends are loud in their clamours for his release or immediate trial. The greater number of those arrested with him have already been set at liberty.

The result of the municipal elections has, on the whole, given great satisfaction, both on account of the character of the elected, and the general interest taken in the matter by the electors. As an instance, in Naples no fewer than twenty different lists were published previous to the elections.

I have, &c.


No. 25.
Consul Bonham to Lord J. Russell.—(Received June 14.)
My Lord,Naples,  June 8, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that this city continues tranquil, but there is still much insecurity in the country.

The news of the lamentable illness and death of Count Cavour has given rise to feelings of much regret, and some apprehension as to the future, amongst those devoted to Italian unity, and caused a fall of nearly 1 per cent, in the public funds, but on the whole it has not occasioned as much sensation as might nave been anticipated under the circumstances.

I have, &c.


No. 26.
Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson.—(Received at the Foreign Office, June 26.)
Sir, Naples, June 12, 1861.

A SHORT visit to Foggia, the capital of the Capitanata, at the very moment of a collision between the brigands and troops, enables me to give you the details, which may be interesting, as guiding to a just appreciation of the 80-called Reactionary movements in other provinces. In every case, the causes would probably be found to have been very similar.

In the Neapolitan provinces, the districts especially dangerous and infested by brigands are the mountains above Nola, the neighbourhood of Melfi, and the Ofante in the Basilicata, the Gargano in Capitanata, and, lastly, the Papal frontier of the Abruzzi; all mountainous districts, in which regular troops can do nothing, unless in such force as completely to surround them. The total of brigands is calculated not to exceed 300 or 400.

The district of the Gargano occupies the entire promontory of that name; no road leads across the mountain, and its virgin forest is a secure hiding-place. The consequence is, that St. Marco in Lamis, a town of 18,000 inhabitants situated in a valley at its north-western extremity, commanded on three sides by the spurs of the mountain, and only accessible through a defile, and by intricate paths, has long been the head-quarters of outlaws and brigands. In common with the neighbouring villages, it suffered much last autumn from the excesses of the Garibaldians, and in December, after their removal, broke out into rebellion, headed by the Captains of the National Guard. The then Governor of the province put down the revolt, shot many, but not only spared the leaders, but entrusted them with the future maintenance of order, in conjunction with a certain Nardelli, an escaped galley-slave and notorious bandit.

As far as regarded public peace in St. Marco the scheme succeeded, but at the expense of the neighbouring villages. In the course of less than three months 8,000 sheep were stolen, and turned to graze on the land of the Captains of the National Guard and their associate Nardelli. No redress was to be had, and eighty mandats d’arrét, issued against inhabitants of St. Marco, were so much waste paper. Such was the state of things up to the end of March.

Count Bardesono, the new Governor, had to content himself with seizing and restoring to the proprietors 5,000 of the stolen sheep. As soon, however, as he had sufficient force, he occupied St. Marco, seized the Captains of the National Guard, and imprisoned them, in spite of the opposition of the Courts at Lucera, bought by the friends of the accused.

Nardelli escaped to the mountains at the head of nearly forty mounted brigands.

On the 2nd of June the troops marched out of St. Marco to form part of a flying column, leaving twenty-seven men in charge of their Stores and baggage. No sooner had they disappeared over the mountain than alarm-bells were rung, Nardelli and his brigands carne in, the whole population rose, the guard was disarmed and confined, the Royal Arms were torn down, and a bust of Francis II set up in a public place.,

Two companies of Bersaglieri were immediately sent from Foggia, and returned the next evening with ten killed and wounded, after a long struggle with the brigands, backed by the disbanded soldiers and the people, who carne out armed with axes; their chief, Nardelli, was, however, killed.

On my arrival at Foggia, on the evening of the 3rd, I found the most exaggerated reports in circulation; German troops, Cavalry and Artillery, were said to have landed, and even the officer commanding the Bersaglieri put the number of the insurgents at 800. In this emergency not one of the newly organized National Guard of Foggia carne forward to offer his Services.

Telegrams and messages poured in on all sides from the panic-struck Syndics of the neighbouring Communes, clamouring for assistance from Government, and doing nothing for themselves. The next morning, however, brought the news that it was all over. The Major commanding the flying-column had arrived at St. Marco on the evening of the 3rd, and, guided by the illuminations of the town in honour of their victory, had forced his way in, losing only one man, had shot Ave, and re-established order. Many of the disbanded have either escaped to the mountains or are still concealed in the town; twenty-seven have since been shot.

From this account of the doings at St. Marco it will be seen that what gave confidence and strength to the brigands was, first, the palpable weakness of Government, which had never had sufficient troops to enforce the law; and, secondly, the presence, in large numbers, of the disbanded soldiers, who should have returned to Service between the 20th and 25th of last month. Everywhere the greatest disinclination has been shown to obey this order, and up to the end of May but 1,000 out of the 25,000 or 30,000 due had come forward. In Capitanata only two Communes sent in their contingent on the appointed day. In Foggia itself there are 60 who up to the 8th had given no sign; these will be arrested, and sent off in irons as deserters. A band of 80 who had escaped into the mountain near Mount St. Angelo, on the south slope of the Gargano, finding themselves on one side menaced by the flying-column, and on the other promised good treatment by the Governor, surrendered the day before the outbreak at St. Marco, and are now at Manfredonia, awaiting transport.

The difficulty of governing such a province a3 that of Capitanata is incalculable, not from any opposition to be feared, but from the hopeless demoralization of the country. No class is to be depended on; none understand or care for the Italian cause. The upper classes are ignorant, corrupt, and intriguing; they are rich, and therefore opposed to all disturbances; but cowardly, and therefore will not defend themselves. Government is to do everything, and if people ai’e found to accept posts of responsibility it will be only with a view to personal advantage. The Judges and Courts of Law are corrupt. There is no Bourbonist party, it is true; and the priests have not been active in opposition in Foggia itself; on the contrary, they have shown themselves well disposed to the Government, with the exception of the bishop. Still it is almost impossible to give confidence in the strength and justice of the Government, more especially to the lower classes, whose only faith is in brigands, such as Nardelli, whom they look up to with a sort of hero-worship. From all classes come petitions for money and places; of the latter there are already more than enough—forty in the Governor’s office alone—and yet not one employé to be found equal to the ordinary duties of Secretary.

In the province there are but two schools, one at Foggia, under monks; the other, secular, at Lucera. The public Works in Capitanata within the last two months have given employment to 3,950 labourers—a large number out of a population of 300,000—with an expenditure of about 7,900 Of this sum 3,200 l. was spent on communal roads, and was provided for out of the Government subsidy, independently of the usual communal expenditure. At present the lack is not of work but of labourers, as every one who applies is taken on at the Works on the Via Samnitica, now being reopened.

The harvest is just beginning, and promises well, and when once the railway works are commenced labour wUl have to be drawn from the other provinces. The payments of the land, the only direct tax, have been made with perfect regularity. It is a strange but promising fact, that in spite of the disorganisation of the provinces, crime shows a decrease in this as compared with previous yeats. In Capitanata the number of Crimea during the months of April and May is only eighty-one, and mostiy thefts.

As the entire force of Carabinieri amounts to eighteen men in the province, arrests have still to be made by the National Guard. Count P. di San Martino, however, hopes soon to bring the country into a state of permanent security; to do this he requires additional force to traverse the provinces in every direction by flying-colurans; 150 additional Carabinieri have already arrived. Still more important is the Count’s determination to put an entire stop to all arbitrary or political arrests. The most summary measures are also about to be taken against the “Camorristi, - who still practise their extortions in broad day. Count di San Martino appears to have thoroughly mastered the details of the situation of Naples, to have clear and distinct ideas of the difficulties with which he has to contend, and of the course which he intends to pursue.

I have, &c.


No. 27.
Sir J. Hudson to Lord J. Russell.— (Received, June 26.)

My Lord,Turin, June 18,1861.

I HAVE the honour to inclose to your Lordship herewith a copy of aletter from Mr. Rose, Acting Consul at Palermo, reporting an attack made upon him near that city by armed brigands, and likewise copy of a note which in consequence I addressed to the Italian Government, and of the reply of Baron Ricasoli thereto.

I have, &c


Inclosure 1 in No. 27.
Acting Consul Rose to Sir J. Hudson.
Sir, Palermo, May 30, 1861.

MY last despatch was dated the 25th instant, and informed you of what had taken place at Catania, and alluded in general terms to the present insecurity for life and property in Sicily.

Yesterday afternoon I had proof in my own person of the lawless state of our neighbourhood. Returning from a ride in the country, and within half-a-mile of Palermo, my carriage was assailed by four men armed with guns, who insisted on my getting out at once with violence, made me accompany them into fields and orchards that skirted the road; on reaching a dump of trees they requested me to give up at once money and any valuables I might have on my person, threatening the use of their weapons if their request was not instantly complied with. Under such circumstances, 1 had only to obey; I gave up my gold watch, being the only valuable I had; after this operation they informed me that I must consider myself their prisoner until I had made over to them 1000l. sterling, which I was to have deposited at a spot they would indicate: not feeling at all inclined to come to any such understanding, but at the same time being anxious to get free from them, I made a bargain that I would send or bring them 100l, to which after considerable demur, and with much threatening language, they agreed to, making me promise that the sum should be deposited this afternoon.

Under the circumstances in which 1 was placed—night closing in, and in a lonely spot, surrounded by armed men, I was obliged to submit to the conditions at the moment, which, however, I shall not fulfil; but consider it my duty to bring the facts before your Excellency, trusting that measures may be taken by this Government, by orders from Turin, which will effectually put a stop to the numerous acts of brigandage going on in Sicily. It is time to punish the evil-doers with rigour, and thus giv'e confidence to the good.

I have, &c.

(Signed) JAMES ROSE.

Inclosure 2 in No. 27.
Sir J. Hudson to Cavour.
Sir, Turin, June 3, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to inclose herewith to your Excellency the copy of a letter which has been addressed to me by the British Pro-Consul for Palermo, reporting a personal fact which will, I feel, cause serious displeasure, if not apprehension to the King's Government.

Her Majesty’s Pro-Consul on the 29th instant was seized by brigands within half a mile of Palermo, carried into the country, robbed, threatened with death, maltreated, and held to ransom.

As it is clearly more in the interest of the King’s Government than in that of any other person to put an end to so discreditable and injurious a state of things, I leave the question in your Excellency’s hands, convinced that you will adopt such vigorous measures as the urgency of the case evidently requires for the protection of life and property.

I avail, &c.


Inclosure 3 in No. 27.
Baron Ricasoli to Sir J. Hudson.
M. le Ministre, Turìn, 16 Juin, 1861.

L’INCIDENT déplorable qui a fait le sujet de votre communication du 3 de ce mois, c’est-à-dire, l’agression dont le Pro-Consul Britannique à Palermo a été victime le 29 Mal dernier, de la part de malfaiteurs armés, à peu de distance de la ville, avait aussi été signalé au Gouvernement du Roi par les autorités de la Sicile.

Il a fourni au Gouvernement l’occasion de recommander encore d’une manière spéciale aux dites autorités de vouer leurs efforts les plus assidus à prévenir et à réprimer de pareils méfaits.

Tout en justifiant ainsi la confiance qu’il vous est reconnaissant de lui avoir exprimée à cette occasion, le Gouvernement du Roi ne sent pas moins le devoir de témoigner au Gouvernement Britannique les regrets les plus vifs et les plus sincères au sujet dcs actes de violence que l’Agent Consulaire Anglais a eu malheureusement à subir dans la circonstance mentionnée ci-dessus.

Je viens par suite vous prier, M. le Ministre, de vouloir bien faire parvenir à votre Gouvernement, ainsi qu’à M. Rose lui-même, l’expression de ces sentiments, et y ajouter l’assurance que les ordres ont été donnés aux autorités Royales à Palerme, soit afin qu’elles fassent usage de tous les moyens en leur pouvoir pour empêcher le retour de faits aussi regrettables, soit afin que si l’on parvient à découvrir les auteurs de l’agression commise contre M. Rose, ils soient poursuivis et punis avec toute la sévérité des lois.

Veuillez, &c.


No. 27.
Mr. Saurin to Sir J. Hudson.—(Received at the Foreign Office, June 29.)
Sir, Naples, June 20, 1861.

THE death of Count Cavour has given fresh courage to the Mazzinian party. Already their organ, the “Popolo d’Italia, - has opened the campaign against Baron Ricasoli with a letter from Mazzini, summoning Count Cavour’s successore, under the plea of concord, to forsake the Cavourian policy, and throw themselves into the arms of the people; and has followed it up by a series of the most furious attacks on the Government, both bere and at Turin, whicli might do mischief were they not based on the most vague and frivolous charges. '

The same paper, in connection with a numerous party at Naples, headed by disappointed engineers and their friends, balked of an opportunity of exercising their talents of peculation, is engaged in thwarting, by every means in its power, the Talabot Railway concession, and an active canvass is going on for signature to a petition to Parliament against it. This opposition has, I am glad to say, produced another petition in favour, which will receive the signatures of all those who are aware how imperative a necessity it is to give, and to give without delay, employment to the country.

In the meantime, though every new appointment is, as ever, made the mark  for denunciation, and Government is held responsive for every petty theft, the state both of Naples and the provinces may be said to be improving. Count di San Martino makes his presence felt in every Department, and be is too much master of his subject to allow dust to be thrown in his eyes. Each day now diminishes the number of the disbanded (almost half have now come in), and the flying columns which are already in motion will shortly, it is to be hoped, give an account of the brigands.

Count di San Martino holds receptions every week, which are numerously attended, and his quiet sensible manner, and the attention he gives to all who approach him, impress people favourably.

This day the new Municipal Council carne into office with the same Syndic as before. They have decided on holding a funeral Service for Count Cavour on the 28th instant, in the Church of San Lorenzo, and on opening a subscription, which they have headed with about 2,000l, for a monument; the conditions and the site to be determined next September.

In these provinces the masses could not be expected to know or feel their loss, but in all other classes, with the exception of the Mazzinians, who only respected his memory as “the least bad of the Cavourians, - the expression of regret has been universal.

The public mind is now excited by the daily conflicting telegrams on the subject of the recognition of Italy by France, and this uncertainty is made the best use of by the antagonista of Baron Ricasoli.

The Cardinal Archbishop of Naples has suspended those priests who took a part in the Services held in celebration of the “Festa del Statuto - on the 2nd instant.

I have, &c.


No. 29.
Consul Bonham to Lord J. Russell.—(Received July 3.)
My Lord,Naples, June 28, 1861.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that brigandage is spreading throughout the provinces of this country to a great and alarming extent. The bands of marauders do not appear to be powerful as to numbers, but they are widely disseminated, and their lawless proceedings are heard of from all quarters, generally plundering of travellers and small hamlets, cutting down the electric telegraph poles, and in some instances setting lire to the newly reaped coro: one hears too of tbe old Bourbon flag being carried about occasionally; but I believe it to be very much less a political movement than a System of agrarian outrage taken up as a profession by a portion of the old disbanded troops, both Bourbon and Garibaldian, who prefer robbery to work, and at this season, when living in mountains can occasion them no inconvenience, it will be very difficult to put them down. '

I have, &c.


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